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    Get an In-depth Insight into the Field of Magnetics and Precision Engineered Components

    Common Terms Explained by Our Skilled Magnet Manufacturing Team

    At Goudsmit UK, our permanent magnets and magnet assemblies are designed to meet the unique needs of your application. Therefore, as a valued customer, you are assured of quality products, timely service and competitive pricing. Here is a self-serve repository of information pertaining to our magnetic products. In addition, we are happy to schedule a meeting to answer any questions about our industrial magnets, engineering components and CNC machining services.

    Click on the links in the menu below to learn more about a topic

    • A-E
    • F-J
    • K-O
    • P-T
    • U-Z
    • 0-9
    • Anodising
    • APQP
    • AS 9120
    • Assembly
    • Bead Blasting
    • Brazing
    • Buffer Stock
    • Certificate of Conformity (CoC)
    • Consignment Stock
    • Core Loss
    • Curie Temperature
    • Demand Planning
    • Design and Process FMEA
    • Direction of Magnetisation
    • Eddy Current / Foucault’s Current
    • Electromagnetism
    • Electroplating
    • Environmental Testing
    • First Article Inspection (FAIR)
    • Flux Density
    • Flux Meter
    • Frame Contracts
    • Gluing
    • Hard Magnetic Material
    • Hardness
    • Heat Staking
    • Helmholtz Coil
    • Hysteresis in Ferromagnetic Materials – BH Curve
    • IATF 16949
    • Insert Moulding
    • Inspection Reports
    • ISO 9001
    • Just-In-Time (JIT)
    • Loss of Magnetic Properties
    • Magnetic Behaviour of Materials
    • Magnetite
    • Material Certifications
    • Measurement of Quantity of Magnetism in Materials
    • Mechanical Assembly
    • Metal Injection Moulding (MIM)
    • Optical 3D Scanner
    • Over Moulding
    • Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
    • Passivating
    • Permagraph
    • Permanent Magnet Material
    • Permanent Magnetism
    • Polishing
    • Powder Coating
    • PPAP On Pre-Production Parts
    • Remanence or ‘Rest’ Magnetism
    • Roughness Tester
    • Rumbling
    • Safety
    • Samples with ISIR Submission
    • Sand Blasting
    • Soft Magnetic Material
    • Tensile Strength
    • The Magnetisation of Ferromagnetic Materials
    • Ultrasonic Welding
    • Warehousing
    • Welding
    • Yield Strength
    • (Ferro) Magnetism
    • 3D CMM Measuring Machine

    (Ferro) Magnetism

    Ferro magnetism is the basis for many electrical and electromagnetic devices ranging from the refrigerator magnet to motors and transformers.

    It is a physical phenomenon that allows certain materials to become permanent magnets. Iron, nickel and cobalt (and their alloys) fall into this category.

    Rare-earth magnets are a relatively new class of exceptionally strong ferromagnetic materials.

    3D CMM Measuring Machine

    This machine is used to take precise 3D measurements of magnets and non-magnetic materials.

    Anodising

    Anodising is an electrolytic process for producing thick oxide coatings, usually on aluminium and its alloys. The oxide layer is typically 5 to 30µm in thickness and is used to give improved surface resistance to wear and corrosion, or as a decorative layer.

    APQP

    Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is a structured process aimed at ensuring customer satisfaction with new products or processes.

    AS 9120

    Goudsmit’s attainment of the AS9120 certification enables us to supply into the aerospace industry. High-tech advancements in aerospace and defence are moving forward incredibly fast. It is not quality, but process control that determines whether products meet a customer´s requirements. As a supplier and manufacturer, we are fully certified at every level of our business.

    The design, development and manufacture of products must be consistent with the requirements of ISO9001 and IAQG – International Aerospace Quality Group. Combined they form the AS9120 certificate. AS9120 sets the standard for safety and reliability for the delivery of products to the civil, military and aviation sectors. It is a globally accepted standard.

    There are few companies worldwide with the expertise to meet AS9120 requirements. We hold the AS9120 certificate, making us your qualified partner.

    Assembly

    The process of putting together several parts to make a machine or other product.

    Bead Blasting

    Bead blasting is the process of removing surface deposits by applying fine glass beads at a high pressure without damaging the surface.

    Brazing

    Like welding, two parts can be brazed using a copper-based alloy which melts and fills the gap between the two tightly fitting parts using capillary action. There are several different techniques, fillers and inert atmospheres used.

    Buffer Stock

    Buffer stock is a level of extra stock that is maintained to mitigate risk of disruptions to supply in the event of fluctuations in demand or delays in replenishment production. The overall purpose of this safety stock is to make sure your customer service levels stay high, and your supply chain continues to run smoothly.

    Certificate of Conformity (CoC)

    A certificate of conformity, or CoC, is issued by an authorised party (sometimes the manufacturer, sometimes an independent laboratory) and states that the product meets the required standards or specification. The CoC can either be requested by a buyer to ensure the product being manufactured has been tested and passes the set criteria within a specification and meets both technical and safety requirements.

    Consignment Stock

    Consignment stock is stock that is legally owned by one party but held by another. This means that the risk and rewards of the stock remains with the first party while the second party has the benefits of having stock availability without the capital investment and is only invoiced for the goods as they use them.  The main benefits include:

    • Lower month to month stock holding costs
    • Lower freight costs per unit
    • Less incidence of urgent freight to get parts from new production
    • Better volume pricing.

    Core Loss

    Power lost in a magnetic material when flux density changes.

    Curie Temperature

    The transition temperature above which a material loses its (ferro)magnet properties. Most references state that the ferromagnetic material becomes weakly magnetic.

    Demand Planning

    Demand planning is a supply chain management process of forecasting the demand for products to ensure that there is sufficient stock levels to meet customer requirements. The process includes the following elements:

    • Data collection – on the factors that will influence demand e.g., seasonal usage, product launches etc.
    • Statistical analysis – of stock, average usage, and current open orders.
    • Modelling – using data to predict future demand.
    • Collaboration – with customers and production facilities etc looking at what can impact demand e.g., production delays, currency changes, raw material supply.

    Design and Process FMEA

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, or FMEA, is a methodology aimed at allowing organisations to anticipate failure during the design stage by identifying all the possible failures in a design or manufacturing process.

    Direction of Magnetisation

    Magnets are either anisotropic or isotropic.

    Most permanent magnets available on the market are anisotropic. These magnets have a preferred direction of magnetic orientation and can only be magnetised along one axis. However, it is possible to reverse the polarity of the magnet, exchanging its north and south pole.

    Ferrite magnets are also available as isotropic versions, which can be magnetised in any direction.

    Eddy Current / Foucault’s Current

    An eddy current is an induction current, generated by an alternating magnetic field around an electrically conductive material. Eddy currents are also referred to as Foucault currents. These are the electric currents intentionally or unintentionally induced in a flat conductor. It is a physical phenomenon that occurs when, for example, a changing magnetic field is in a metal plate. This could be an alternating field from an electric coil, but it could also be the result of movement that causes the plate to cut through the field lines. When a conductor cuts through magnetic field lines, a current is introduced in the conductor.

    Electromagnetism

    In the case of electromagnets, the magnetic field is produced by an electric current generated by a conductor. Typically, these magnets consist of a magnetic or ferromagnetic material (like soft iron) with a coil wound around it.

    In applications requiring a strong magnetic field, electromagnets are preferred to permanent magnets. The advantage of using them is that the magnetic field can be changed or turned off by controlling the amount of electric current in the winding.

    Electroplating

    Electroplating is the process of applying a metal coating on another piece of metal (or another conductive surface) through an electro-deposition process. In electroplating, the deposited metal becomes part of the existing product with the plating/coating.

    Environmental Testing

    Environmental testing is the measurement of the performance of equipment under specified environmental conditions, such as:

    • Extremely high and low temperatures
    • Large, swift variations in temperature
    • Blown and settling sand and dust
    • Salt spray and salt fog

    First Article Inspection (FAIR)

    A first article inspection (FAI) is a design verification and design history file and a formal method of providing a reported measurement for each manufactured feature of a part or assembly. Typically, the supplier performs the FAI and the purchaser reviews or approves the report.

    Flux Density

    The magnetic induction corresponding to zero magnetising force in a magnetic material after saturation in a closed circuit; measured in gauss or tesla.

    Flux Meter

    This machine is used to check the magnetisation angle; this is especially important in combination with sensors. Unlike Gaussmeters need a changing magnetic environment to support measurement.

    Frame Contracts

    Frame Contracts are agreements to manufacture, store and deliver goods over a fixed period of time, with some spanning up to 3 years. The benefits are that a long-term partnership is established and pricing can be fixed for the duration of the contract, which can save both time and cost compared to the normal repeat ordering process.

    Gluing

    This needs to be a well thought out and well tested solution. Gluing must be well controlled with proper dosing equipment, refrigerated storage, thorough application and curing instructions respected and complied to. Environment and fatigue testing of samples is essential to ensure the correct functioning of the product over time. We frequently use glue in our assembly products however, we do so with some caution and considerable testing cycles.

    Hard Magnetic Material

    A “permanent” magnet material that has an intrinsic coercivity greater than or equal to about 300 Oersteds (24 kA/m).

    Hardness

    A measure of the resistance of a material to surface indentation or abrasion.

    Heat Staking

    This is when a polymer is heated to a temperature where it exhibits plastic behaviour and then is deformed to form a fastener. This powerful and repeatable technique is one we use with greater frequency at Goudsmit UK.

    Helmholtz Coil

    This is a quick way to measure the differences between magnets. It consists of two electromagnets on the same axis. A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field. Besides creating magnetic fields, Helmholtz coils are also used in scientific apparatus to cancel external magnetic fields, such as the Earth’s magnetic field.

    Hysteresis in Ferromagnetic Materials – BH Curve

    Hysteresis refers to the irreversibility of the magnetisation and demagnetisation process of a material. A study of the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic materials shows the relationship between the degree of magnetisation (B) and the strength of the magnetic field (H). Naturally, there is no magnetisation without a magnetic field.

     

    IATF 16949

    The IATF 16949 is the International Standard for Automotive Quality Management Systems. This standard guarantees that every aspect of our magnets meets quality and safety requirements.

    Magnets used in high-tech systems require the application of the highest standards of quality and safety. That is why it is important that suppliers continuously focus on the standards and requirements associated with technological advancements.

    IATF 16949 was developed by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) in collaboration with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The IATF consists of an international group of major motor vehicle manufacturers. Together, they establish the quality requirements for the design, development, production, installation, and servicing of automotive-related products – Tier 1.

    Insert Moulding

    Commonly used to combine metals and plastics without gluing, this is a technically advanced solution which requires well designed moulds and precision components.

    Inspection Reports

    A dimensional inspection report is an easy-to-read summary of the inspection.

    ISO 9001

    The globally recognised ISO 9001 standard held by Goudsmit guarantees quality control. This gives you the assurance you need that the products we produce meet your and regulatory requirements consistently.  We achieve this through the continuous monitoring and improvement of our processes.

    Just-In-Time (JIT)

    JIT is a stock control method where the business does not store any items, but instead has regular deliveries that bring only what is needed before its existing items run out. Goods would be manufactured and brought into the UK to be held in a UK warehouse to allow for shorter lead times and lower end delivery costs.

    Large amounts of capital are not tied up in stock, which instead can be reinvested/spent elsewhere and the reduction of storage space requirements, allows for either smaller premises or for the space to be used by other parts of the business.

    JIT unfortunately comes with a number of potential disadvantages, which can have a significant impact on the company if they occur. There is a risk of running out of stock or not having enough product available to meet unexpected orders. It therefore is imperative that there are correct procedures in place to ensure stock can become readily available and quickly if required.

    Loss of Magnetic Properties

    If the temperature is increased to the Curie temperature, the magnet will permanently lose its magnetism. The atoms then vibrate so intensely that there is no global orientation anymore, as a result of which the magnet demagnetises. The same can happen due to mechanical shock, oxidation, or exposure to very strong external fields. This loss cannot be repaired; thus, it is irreversible.

    Conversely, we have reversible loss, which is the temporary loss of magnetism, e.g., due to change of temperature. This loss can be reversed by cooling and/or remagnetisation.

    Magnetic Behaviour of Materials

    When exposed to a magnetic field, materials can respond in a variety of ways. This is largely determined by the material’s electronic structure. We distinguish between the following types of magnetic behaviour:

    • Diamagnetism
    • Ferromagnetism
    • Anti-ferromagnetism
    • Ferrimagnetism
    • Paramagnetism
    • Pauli paramagnetism
    • Super paramagnetism
    • Spin glass magnetism

    Magnetite

    In ancient times, people discovered that magnetite crystals attract or repel each other, depending on their orientation. This physical phenomenon is called magnetism. The words magnetite and magnesium are both derived from Magnesia, the name of an area in the Thessalyë region of ancient Greece where magnetic stone can be found in abundance.

    It is the iron in the rock that is responsible for the magnetic properties of magnetite. Many iron alloys possess magnetic properties. Besides in iron, we find magnetic properties in nickel, cobalt, and gadolinium as well.

    Material Certifications

    Material certificate, also known as mill test report (MTR) or mill test certificate (MTC), is a quality assurance document used in the metals industry that certifies material’s technical parameters such as chemistry, mechanical or other physical properties, manufacturing routes, heat treatment details, testing results or compliance to a set of international or local standards.

    Measurement of Quantity of Magnetism in Materials

    Since the magnetic field is invisible, obtaining a complete, quantitative representation of it requires measurement of both its strength and its direction.

    It is possible to measure the exact field strength and direction of a magnet by using a Gaussmeter/Teslameter.

    Gaussmeters work because of the Hall Effect, a phenomenon discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879. Hall found that a magnetic field will impact the flow of an electric circuit. We now know that we can measure this impact to determine the strength of a magnetic force.

    Mechanical Assembly

    Press fits, interference fits, fasteners, threads and clips are some of the lowest risk methods of assembling components available, with also having the ability to test and validate. Goudsmit UK will often look at mechanical assembly as a first-choice solution.

    Metal Injection Moulding (MIM)

    Metal injection moulding is a natural progression from magnets to polymer injection moulding. Goudsmit UK specialise in the design and manufacture powder injection moulding products, including metal injection moulding (MIM) and ceramic injection moulding (CIM) technologies of complex, high volume, net-shaped components.

    MIM involves manipulating metal powders to behave like a plastic by mixing them with polymer binders to form a feedstock. This feedstock is used to injection mould net shaped, precision components. Parts are then thermally processed to remove the binder system and then sintered to a high-density metal component.

    Optical 3D Scanner

    This machine is used to measure the full geometry of a permanent magnet. Based on blue light technology, we can make extensive analyses and reports on permanent magnets for, among others, the automotive and aerospace industries.

    This data provides you with important information. Already during the design phase of a product, adjustments and improvements are possible.

    Over Moulding

    When looking to combine two polymer parts Goudsmit UK often look to over moulding. Although requiring an extra mould tool it is an excellent way to ensure parts remain firmly assembled. Often the polymers are quite different with a rigid polymer being combined with an elastomer.

    Part Submission Warrant (PSW)

    A procedure by which the supplier of a part or subsystem gives evidence to the customer that he can satisfy the requirements of Delivery date, Quality, Process Capability and Production Rate.

    Passivating

    Passivation is the process of treating or coating a metal in order to reduce the chemical reactivity of its surface. In stainless steel, passivation means removing the free iron from the surface of the metal using an acid solution to prevent rust.

    Permagraph

    The Permagraph is the world-wide known standard equipment for the measurement of magnetic characteristics of permanent magnets in research, development, quality control and production. The Permagraph helps to determine your required magnetic specifications. With this, we make a hysteresis curve, which shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density (B) and the magnetic field strength (H).

    Permanent Magnet Material

    Shaped piece of ferromagnetic material, which once having been magnetised, shows definite resistance to external demagnetising forces, i.e., requires a high demagnetising force to remove the residual magnetism.

    Permanent Magnetism

    Made from a ferromagnetic material, a permanent magnet retains its magnetism even outside a magnetic field.

    The internal structure of the materials keeps it magnetised.

    Permanent magnets were once made of steel but we now have a variety of better suited alloys for this purpose.

    Polishing

    Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or by applying a chemical treatment, leaving a clean surface with a significant specular reflection.

    Powder Coating

    Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. Unlike conventional liquid paint, which is delivered via an evaporating solvent, powder coating is typically applied electrostatically and then cured under heat or with ultraviolet light. The powder may be a thermoplastic or a thermoset polymer. It is usually used to create a hard finish that is tougher than conventional paint.

    PPAP On Pre-Production Parts

    Production Part Approval Process is used in the automotive supply chain for establishing confidence in suppliers and their production processes. Actual measurements are taken from the parts produced and are used to complete the various test sheets of PPAP.

    Remanence or ‘Rest’ Magnetism

    Residual magnetism is what is left behind in ferromagnetic materials after the magnetic field is removed. This may be caused by magnetic fields from the immediate surroundings, such as clamping tables, magnetic conveyors or induction heating.

    Arc welding, machining processes, cold forming and mechanical vibrations could also contribute to the rest magnetism.

    Residual magnetism may have problematic and costly consequences, which can be avoided by the demagnetisation of the material.

    Roughness Tester

    This is used to check whether magnets and assemblies meet the roughness requirements. It measures the roughness with external probes and gains optimal insight into the surface roughness of grooves and holes in magnet material.

    Rumbling

    Rumbling is a finishing process that removes oil and burrs off metal parts and components. It can also polish parts to make them shiny and smooth or help remove rust.

    Safety

    Goudsmit UK’s Neoflux® brand of Neodymium-iron-borion (Nd-Fe-B) magnets can be smaller than a penny, yet strong enough to lift over 10 kilograms. Handle them carefully to avoid personal injury and damage to the magnet.

    Sudden attraction to iron or steel can result in pinched fingers or skin.

    Made with special powders and coatings, they are brittle and break easily at temperatures above 150 °C or when slammed together. In such situations, the flying pieces may cause eye or other injuries.

    Samples with ISIR Submission

    Sample parts which are subject of the ISIR must be marked / labelled before submission. ISIR stands for Initial Sampling Inspection Report. The ISIR summarised the test results of initial samples, that were produced under serial circumstances.

    Sand Blasting

    Sandblasting is process of smoothing and cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds using compressed air.

    Soft Magnetic Material

    Shaped piece of ferromagnetic material that once having been magnetised is very easily demagnetised, i.e., requires a slight coercive force to remove the resultant magnetism.

    Tensile Strength

    The ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. The maximum load is the force (in pounds) to cause tensile sample to fail. Also known as the ultimate strength.

    The Magnetisation of Ferromagnetic Materials

    Ferromagnetic (or magnetically conductive) materials such as iron and steel (and their alloys) can be easily magnetised and depending on the type of material may retain their magnetic properties even after the magnetic field is removed.

    Generally, this ‘remanent’, ‘remanence’ or ‘residual’ magnetism is employed in engineering applications.

    Deformation or welding can also result in magnetism of non-ferrite stainless steel.

    Ultrasonic Welding

    Soundwaves are used to weld two polymers together. Another specialised technique that requires tooling to hold the parts and direct the sound waves to the required area. Once perfected repeatability is exceptional, and it can be easily tested by sectioning the welds.

    Warehousing

    Warehousing is the process of proper storage and handling of goods, making them available easily and smoothly when needed. In a busy marketplace, goods can be required at short notice, so having access to goods in a local warehouse means that they can be dispatched immediately to meet your requirements.

    Welding

    When two metal parts cannot be joined using a fastener, Goudsmit UK use metal welding. A manual skill that relies on the operator and testing is quite lengthy. However, it can be difficult to provide a good cosmetic finish.

    Yield Strength

    The stress level at which a material exhibits a specified change from proportionality of stress and strain. Beyond this stress level, the tensile sample will not return to its original configuration or cross section.

    Partner with One Of The UK’s Top Engineering Components Manufacturers to Grow Your Business

    Part of the Goudsmit Group, our UK magnet manufacturing firm, offers a wide range of precision parts in a variety of materials. Leverage our expertise in magnets, plastics, metals and assemblies to improve your bottom line. We offer high-performance,cost-efficient solutions for customers in the automotive, medical, renewable energy, oil and gas and aerospace sectors.

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